1954 Operation Exodus
Also called "Operation Passage to Freedom," it helped transport about one million (800,000 by sea and 200,00 by planes) northern refugees to South Vietnam following the partition of Vietnam into two countries: North and South.

The resettlement has been well executed by then Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem with the help of western charitable organization. These refugees eventually represented the backbone of Diem's support in the South.

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View of Sailors with Vietnamese - November 11, 1954.
French sailors help Vietnamese natives drag their sampan into a Navy landing craft at Van Ly. Despite warnings and restrictions by Red Viet Minh police, thousands of Roman Catholics in the Communist-dominated area are streaming southward to be resettled in non-Red regions.

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Haiphong, Indo-China --- 8/21/54-Haiphong, Indo-China: There is no sign of abatement in the steady stream of evacuees who have abandoned their homes in northern Vietnam, to flee areas that will fall under Communist domination according to the Geneva Agreement on Indo-China. Almost 2,500 refugees pour into Hanoi and Haiphong daily to beat the deadline. In this photo, a French social worker is shown helping one of the fleeing families to board a transport bound for Saigon in the south. --- Image by © Bettmann/CORBIS

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